Keepapitchinin, the Mormon History blog » LDS Response to the Relocation of Joseph’s and Hyrum’s Graves, 1928

LDS Response to the Relocation of Joseph’s and Hyrum’s Graves, 1928

By: Ardis E. Parshall - August 30, 2013

When the bodies of Joseph and Hyrum Smith were returned to Nauvoo following their martyrdom in Carthage, Illinois, a public funeral was held with a burial in the city cemetery. Known to only a very few, very trusted people was the fact that the caskets buried in the cemetery held only bags of sand or stone. The bodies had been removed from those caskets for secret burial.

As published in the Deseret News in 1857:

The coffins were then taken out of the boxes into the little bedroom in the northeast corner of the Mansion, and there concealed and the door locked. Bags of sand were then placed in each end of the boxes, which were then nailed up, and a mock funeral took place, and the boxes deposited in a grave with the usual ceremonies.

This was done to prevent the enemies of the martyred prophet and patriarch getting possession of the bodies, as they had threatened they would do.

About midnight the coffins containing the bodies were taken through the garden, around by the pump and were conveyed to the Nauvoo House, and buried in the basement story.

After the bodies were interred, and the ground smoothed off, a most terrific shower of rain, accompanied by thunder and lightning, occurred and obliterated all traces of the fact that the earth had been newly dug.

The bodies remained in the cellar of the house until fall, when they were removed to a point near the Mansion and buried side by side. The Bee House was then moved and placed over their graves.

However surprising this announcement may have been to LDS readers in 1857, it must have been old news to later generations of Latter-day Saints who studied their own history. In 1884 B.H. Roberts published a similar account in his book Rise and Fall of Nauvoo, and in 1904 Joseph F. Smith confirmed to David O. McKay that “the story about the bodies of the Prophets Joseph and Hyrum Smith having been brought to this country by the pioneers is a fallacy; they were buried in Nauvoo, and their resting place remains undisturbed.” It was probably discussed on other occasions (although it is undocumented, surely, for example, when the party of Church leaders visited Nauvoo on their return from the 1905 dedication of the Joseph Smith Monument in Vermont).

But it isn’t surprising, I suppose, that most members of the Church were unfamiliar with this detail of history – just as many things that are quite familiar and available to students of Mormon history today remain unknown to the majority of Church members.

In mid-January, 1928, at the direction of Frederick M. Smith, grandson of Joseph Smith and president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, workmen probing the known burial site located the skeletonized remains of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. The bones were carefully taken up, their identity confirmed by the clear evidence of a bullet hole near Hyrum’s nose and through other details (remains of clothing, including marked undergarments), and the remains reinterred, along with those of Emma Smith, in new, well-marked graves on the original Joseph Smith properties in Nauvoo.

Personally, and from the perspective of 2013, I have few objections to the actions of the then-RLDS church. The original graves, unmarked except for a collapsed and decayed building, were not marked or able to be honored. No matter how many people knew of their approximate location, with the passage of time and the obliteration of old landmarks it became more and more likely that their location would be lost to knowledge. I don’t even mind the photographing of the remains, although I could wish that they had not been promiscuously displayed in 1928 and made an object of sensation. About my only real complaint, I suppose, is that the descendants of Hyrum Smith were not consulted or included in the decision to disinter and move the remains of their grandfather.

Public awareness of the relocation of the graves was made in an Associated Press release, followed by many articles based on that release, sometimes supplemented by additional information – or additional imaginative inventions – which appeared in newspapers all across the country. (I have posted transcriptions of some of those articles here; since the newspapers and dates of publication were not attached to most of the clippings I’ve read, excuse me, please, for not including those facts.)

Members of the Church from coast to coast read those articles, considered them, then mailed them off to Church leaders in Salt Lake City, both to be sure they were aware of the news and to ask whether it was true.

“Please let me know if this is true,” wrote George Cole of Gridley, California. Demonstrating how sudden awareness of an historical fact can stir doubt and criticism among Church members, even when the facts were available had it occurred to Church members to ask, Mr. and Mrs. C.W. Hubbard of Corrine, Utah, wrote, “This announcement has created quite a question in many minds and was the object of quite a discussion among a number of friends the other evening … We would like to know why the burial place of these leaders of our church has not been made public to church members or anyone else for that matter.” Florence Shepherd of North Clarendon, Vermont; Mary O. Griffin of LaGrange, Illinois (and a granddaughter of Hyrum Smith); and Carrie M. Beecher of Detroit, Michigan, also sent in clippings and asked for clarification – the news and its sensation were that broadly covered.

The Associated Press interviewed Church Historian Joseph Fielding Smith and assistant Church Historian B.H. Roberts, and prepared a follow-up article that was published just as widely as the original article; I’ve posted a transcription of that here. Joseph Fielding Smith was indignant, B.H. Roberts more restrained. Copies of this article were apparently mailed to correspondents who sent in clippings of the first articles and asked for more information.

Church members who had taken the trouble to be sure that Church headquarters were aware of the news sometimes received personal responses. One letter over the signature of Heber J. Grant assured the correspondent that “When I was in Nauvoo two or three years ago the spot where the bodies of the Prophet Joseph and his brother Hyrum were buried was pointed out to me. There has been no secret about the matter.” Others learned that “The bodies of Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were not lost. We have known exactly where they were buried, and there was no real justification for the remains being taken up and re-buried.”

Some responses betrayed a shade of irritation directed at the actions of the RLDS leadership. “We knew where the bodies of the Prophet and Patriarch were buried, and years ago President Joseph Smith of the Reorganized Church talked some of removing them to Independence, and President Smith, the son of the Patriarch, protested and insisted that they be left where they were. It is annoying to the grandchildren of the Patriarch, all of whom reside here, that the body of their grandfather was disturbed by the present head of the Reorganized Church.”

Still others attempted to downplay the sensational response stirred by the original AP article and its myriad of historical errors. “Our good friends have been careful to see that the supposed find of the bodies of the Prophet Joseph Smith and his brother came to our attention. Where they were located and buried was known to President [Joseph F.] Smith years ago, and the claims of a great discovery amounts to nothing.” “There was no mystery at all as to where the bodies of the Prophet and his brother were buried.” “We knew where the bodies of the Prophet and Patriarch were buried, and years ago President Joseph Smith [III] of the Reorganized Church talked some of removing them to Independence, and President [Joseph F.] Smith, the son of the Patriarch, protested and insisted that they be left where they were. It is annoying to the grandchildren of the Patriarch, all of whom reside here, that the body of their grandfather was disturbed by the present head of the Reorganized Church.”

The days are long past when Church members could expect a personal answer from a Church leader in response to some item in the newspaper. What hasn’t changed, I think, is our (the Mormon people’s) interest in our history and in what “outsiders” write about us, and our gut reaction both to sensationalism and to new information that we somehow feel we should have known all along.



  1. What comes around goes around, I suppose. Some elements in the media are always looking for a lurid or sensational angle to hang a story on, and this one had it in spades. Add to that the continued mistrust and barely suppressed animosity towards the Reorganized Church by Joseph F. and Joseph Fielding Smith over competing narratives of their common founding prophet, the AP was sure to get some great sound bites. Fortunately, we seem to be mostly over that now (at least the friction with the Community of Christ, not the media).

    Not to be condescending towards the “average” church member, if such a thing exists, but we tend to know what we think we know, and aren’t always ready to embrace new ideas.

    Interestingly enough, I was going through a bunch of old papers in my home office, and found notes I had made from a fireside by Eldred G. Smith some 30 years ago in Utah. He had talked about the concept of paradigms, and how sometimes new information comes along that challenges our current world view, and that we either have to change that view, or we create stress, ie cognitive dissonance in our lives. He tied all of this in with repentance and the atonement, but the background was church history, and Patriarch Smith displaying the wooden box that was used to hold the plates, and Hyrum Smith’s clothes he was wearing at the time of the martyrdom. His counsel still has resonance for today.

    Comment by kevinf — August 30, 2013 @ 10:13 am

  2. Oh my goodness, Ardis, you keep posting all this amazing content and in such an effortless way. It reminds me of the story about the adoring fan who tells Paderewski, “I’d give my life to be able to play like that.” He says, “I have, Madam, I have.”

    (Yes, the story is apocryphal and it’s undoubtedly been told about dozens of famous musicians, but it does make the point that writing history like this takes a combination of natural talent and years of consistent effort and hard work.)

    Comment by Amy T — August 30, 2013 @ 10:20 am

  3. I’m liking more and more what the Assistant Sexton at the Springville City Cemetery told me yesterday, “We’re not in the business of digging people up!”

    Comment by Grant — August 30, 2013 @ 10:22 am

  4. Great Ardis. (No comma needed–that is your title as far as I’m concerned.)
    Really a great week.

    I understood that the 1928 reburial was because of the rising Mississippi and a desire to relocate them to a little higher ground. Am I making that up?

    Comment by jjohnson — August 30, 2013 @ 10:43 am

  5. jjohnson, that’s what the RLDS church spokesmen said at the time, and I have no reason to doubt them, having seen how close the Smith properties are to the river today. Nobody in the West appears to have commented on that factor — I don’t know whether they weren’t aware of conditions, or whether animosity overrode other considerations. In any case, in my opinion, the graves needed to be cared for.

    Comment by Ardis E. Parshall — August 30, 2013 @ 10:49 am

  6. I was trying to figure out how the rainstorm obscured the evidence of recent digging in the basement story of the Nauvoo House, and then it dawned on me that the story in the 1857 Deseret News must have been talking about the digging at the outside gravesite from which the bodies had been removed.

    It is faith promoting, however, to know that it always quits raining just before the start of the Hill Cumorah Pageant and that it always starts raining right after the prophet’s body is exhumed.

    Comment by Mark B. — August 30, 2013 @ 11:06 am

  7. Fascinating. Thanks, Ardis!

    Comment by Christopher — August 30, 2013 @ 11:37 am

  8. Well-written and compelling historical narrative combined with brilliant present-day application. This post is “Exhibit A” in the case justifying my Keepa habit.

    Thank you, Ardis.

    Comment by David Y. — August 30, 2013 @ 12:18 pm

  9. “Identification was made by Frederick M. Smith, grandson, from clothing and certain marks.” This certainly pokes a hole in the argument made by detractors that Smith had turned away from the temple ceremony.

    Comment by The Other Clark — August 30, 2013 @ 1:09 pm

  10. Mark B, It is talking about the grave in the basement of the nauvoo house, it was only partially finished (to about two stories if I remember correctly, but that was at the time the saints were leaving Nauvoo), and at the time of the prophets’ death it must not have been to even the first floor.

    Comment by seth — August 30, 2013 @ 1:55 pm

  11. I just finished reading “The Journey of a People” the soon to be 3 volume History of the Community of Christ written by their historian Mark A Scherer. He spends several pages on this episode in volume 2. He details how in the teens and 20’s the river began to rise and cause problems. By 1927 they were really worried. They knew about, but not for sure where the graves were and knew they were in peril of being covered. So they put together a team to find them but for some time they had no luck. Scherer documents special prayer services to be blessed to find the graves. The RLDS Church saw their rediscovery of the graves as a miracle. They felt that they did a great thing by putting the bodies of Emma, Joseph, and Hyrum in a safe place together. Also the publicity from it made the local Power company look a little bad for not being cooperative so they changed water flows from a near by dam to help protect historic Nauvoo.

    Each side will spin to their advantage. So I will not judge who is most right. I remember reading Joseph F Smith’s version and feelings in Doctrines of Salvation or one of his books when I was on my Mission. He was VERY indignant as you mentioned Ardis. Again, interesting to see both perspectives and to try and find the truth that often is somewhere in the middle.

    Comment by andrew h — August 30, 2013 @ 2:23 pm

  12. Ardis, you continue to spoil us with posts such as this one. Thanks!

    Comment by Gary Bergera — August 30, 2013 @ 3:12 pm

  13. I think the coffins filled with sand were buried near the temple not in the Nauvoo Cemetery. Also I think some of the concerns of the Utah Mormons were that many of them thought Joseph and Hyrum had already been resurrected, so their bones should have not been there.

    Comment by Jeff Johnson — August 31, 2013 @ 12:22 am

  14. “I understood that the 1928 reburial was because of the rising Mississippi and a desire to relocate them to a little higher ground. Am I making that up?” Jeff Johnson, this is what I had always understood, too. I’m not sure where I learned this from, though.

    Comment by Maurine — August 31, 2013 @ 6:55 pm

  15. I’m surprised that the article didn’t contain any reference to the established fact that the bodies were misidentified during the reburial in the 1920’s & that Joseph is buried in Hyrum’s grave & vice versa. When asked, the Community of Christ tour guides usually acknowledge such. An excellent book on the subject is “In Search of Joseph” by Shannon Tracy.

    Comment by David — September 2, 2013 @ 7:51 am

  16. To Mark B.
    The romantic fable that the rains always stop at the commencement of the Hill Cumorah Pageant is a complete fallacy. In my 10 years of service at that wonderful event I don’t know that I ever witnessed that happen. I do remember opening night a few years ago, however, where the exact opposite occurred: a torrential downpour began concurrent to the start of the show and continued drenching us all until the end. The following day, the whole hill was covered in hundreds of costumes laid out to dry in the sun. Let’s keep our histories rooted in actual facts and not get carried away in romance. The truth is compellingly faith-promoting on its own merits and needs no embellishments.

    Comment by john h. — September 2, 2013 @ 10:07 am

  17. We’re getting some visits through, I think, LDS Living, from readers who are unfamiliar with Keepa. You’re all welcome, but please note a couple of things:

    This post is about LDS *reaction* to the relocation of the graves, not a full study of the relocation itself. We welcome your suggestion, David, of further reading, but it’s hardly fair to be “surprised” at the omission of material irrelevant to the focus of this post.

    john h., I agree wholeheartedly with the idea that the truth is compelling enough — that could be a subtitle for nearly 4,000 posts published here at Keepa. Please know that Mark B. is a longtime and prized commenter here, and he knows as well as anyone that the legend of fair weather for the pageant is faith-promoting rumor that has little basis in fact. I assure you that his comment was made with his tongue firmly in his cheek, and that he doesn’t need to be cautioned not to get “carried away in romance.”

    Thanks, all.

    Comment by Ardis E. Parshall — September 2, 2013 @ 10:19 am

  18. I am a descendant ot Hyrum and have visited the grave sites several times. I find it to be a sacred place. I am a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saint and appreciate the reverence and effort the RLDS church or now the Community of Christ have done to protect and mark such a sacred site. Thank you.

    Comment by Bart Welling — September 2, 2013 @ 12:32 pm

  19. Oh, that’s too funny. (The first good laugh I’ve had this weekend, actually.) Yeah, Mark, you’d better watch those flights of fancy. : )

    That’s great that you’re getting these extra readers, Ardis, but if they don’t appreciate what an amazing post this is and what amazing content you regularly add to Keepapitchinin, it would be best if they restrain the urge to contribute by criticizing, and instead ask questions or contribute further information or share personal experiences, as was just demonstrated so nicely by Bart Welling.

    Comment by Amy T — September 2, 2013 @ 1:16 pm

  20. When my mission president talked about this to us, some 38 years ago, he told us that a dentist was present at the reburial. Because of that, we know that Joseph had no cavities. (Just an interesting little fact that has no bearing on any discussion anywhere.)

    Comment by STW — September 3, 2013 @ 7:01 am

  21. My husband’s father, Donald G. Lyman, was serving as mission secretary in the Central States Mission at the time of the reburial. His mission president (name may be Bowen or Bennion) was informed the day before and my husband’s father and the president drove all night to witness the reinterment. They were allowed to see the bodies, and Don Lyman has told this story with the detail that they could see the bullet hole in Hyrum’s skull.

    Comment by Lovisa Lyman — September 3, 2013 @ 10:39 am

  22. That was Samuel O. Bennion, Lovisa — it’s fun to hear of personal ties to historic events. Thanks.

    Comment by Ardis E. Parshall — September 3, 2013 @ 10:50 am

  23. I will admit to connecting to this site via LDS Living and am glad I took a moment to do so. Having recently visited Nauvoo with my family, I concur with the earlier statements as to the reasons the RLDS (Community of Christ) moved the bodies. It was interesting how the LDS missionaries in Nauvoo and Kirtland praised the tours given by the CofC representatives and told us about the spirit of cooperation now existing between the two churches (and I have no reason to contradict those comments as I was happy with both tours). What I did find funny was even with the greater spirit of exhibited cooperation, there were still a couple of subtle digs by the CofC to the LDS faith in their opening video presentations at both sites (you had pay attention to catch them, but they were there)—kind of like the younger brother pinching the older brother for good measure after assuring his parents the “disagreement” had ended.

    I have a bit of a different take on this post which I hope is in the spirit of what is written. I noticed that after mentioning how members mailed the AP articles to Salt Lake City “both to be sure [leaders] were aware of the news and to ask whether it was true”, Ardis then used one of the comments from a member in Corrine, Utah to demonstrate “how sudden awareness of an historical fact can stir doubt and criticism among Church members, even when the facts were available had it occurred to Church members to ask”. In light of recent articles discussing how historical facts (the Mountain Meadows massacre, Joseph Smith practicing plural marriage and his mode of translating the Book of Mormon, to name three) have sown seeds of doubt in certain members of the Church, I find it fascinating that the announcement of the disinterment and relocation of the graves of Joseph and Hyrum Smith did the same to members back in 1928 even when the information concerning their original burial was there to be found by one interested in finding it. The way I see it, the Church was designed by Heavenly Father as an entity to teach us the Gospel of Jesus Christ, not the history of the Church. Reputable sources exist for learning (warts and all) the details surrounding the rise of the Church and its history, but it isn’t the Church’s function to teach its members this history if it doesn’t enhance the member’s understanding of the Gospel. The test, in my opinion, is: do we allow this seemingly “hidden” history to cause us to doubt, criticize and fall away from the leaders of the Church and the core teachings of the Gospel, or do we strive to understand the history, categorize it (in some cases) as the imperfection of men and stay true to the Gospel covenants and principles as taught by the Church.

    Comment by Chris M. — September 3, 2013 @ 12:49 pm

  24. I know it was a while back, but in 1970 the rain was pouring so hard in Nauvoo that we bought plastic tablecloths to help cover us up. The opening prayer to the pageant asked for the “elements to be tempered.” By the time the prayer was over, the rain had stopped. It didn’t rain again until the end of the last scene. By the time we got back to the car, the downpour raged and soaked us. I know it happened at least once!

    Comment by Christine Edwards — September 3, 2013 @ 4:18 pm

  25. As a previously elected official, one basic tenet is to “control the message”. That has “ominous overtones”, but in reality, it’s better to provide the message, rather than allow potential enemies to twist it, leaving you on the defensive to explain any omissions or deviations that may occur as a result of a “spun message”.

    One can look at the lost 116 pages of the Book of Lehi manuscript as an example of the dangers inherent with allowing someone else to have access to a message and being given the opportunity to shape it, prior to being able to give the true message (ie. retranslation).

    The church is reluctantly being dragged into having to share info that may be less than flattering to Joseph Smith (see the preface to Joseph Smith Papers, vol 2, as it relates to the practice of polygamy by Joseph Smith.)

    Is it essential to our salvation? No. But if we’re constantly beating the drum regarding the need for honesty and wielding the sword of truth, then we should be willing to wield that sword, and hopefully understand the context under which questionable behavior existed. Some answers we may never get, and sadly, in the absence of answers, we often like to fill in the holes with salacious theories. The truth may be as simple as falling to temptation. Or there may be more to it. The fact remains that we are often told in the words of Jesus NOT to judge others. HE will judge them.

    With regards to questionable elements of Joseph Smith’s life, I simply point to the fact that nobody but Jesus was perfect. And that God uses a number of imperfect people to further his work.

    Whether Joseph acted as a prophet for the translation of the Book of Mormon, or subsequent revelations, that is to be determined with help from the Holy Ghost, individually.

    I for one abhor a whitewashing of the history of people who become leaders. I’m not trying to emphasize their faults, but for heaven’s sake, don’t paint a rosy picture of perfection while hoping to avoid the landmines of history. There are lessons to be learned from others’ lives, much as we learn from the Book of Mormon people who fell away, and what led them there. Similarly, we have MUCH to gain from studying how they rose from sinful lives and turn their hearts to Christ.

    That gives me hope that I can too! And THAT is an essential part of the gospel of repentance! I can bear witness to that, after having studied and prayed fervently, subsequent to trying to understand why Peter would deny Christ 3 times in one night – after witnessing so many miracles directly – and asking what MY level of commitment would be towards Christ, when I didn’t have that same experience. The answer to that effort has become MY rock upon which I base my testimony of Jesus Christ.

    (Just passing through as a result of visiting Meridian Magazine. I’ll poke around a little more. Thanks for an enlightening article!)

    Comment by Justin M. — September 3, 2013 @ 4:42 pm

  26. A recent publication, “Millions Shall Know Brother Joseph Again” carefully examines forensic evidence correlated with the historical record of the martyrdom and comes to the unavoidable and shocking conclusion that in the 1928 exhumation, the remains of Hyrum and Joseph were misidentified. What was supposed to have been a bullet hole to Joseph’s skull doesn’t correspond to the death mask. The partial collapse of the skull was actually caused by severe facial fractures at the time of Joseph’s fall from the second story window. The bullet holes in Hyrum’s skull were large, but again were on the wrong side of the face to have been Hyrum’s. The evidence given in this publication was quite convincing. If true, then the remains of Joseph Smith lie under the marker named Hyrum Smith and Emma lies next to Hyrum, not Joseph.

    Comment by Fred H — September 5, 2013 @ 11:41 pm

  27. Millions Shall Know (and its predecessor In Search of Joseph) should be used with extreme caution; its analysis of the Scannel daguerreotype is pure bunk. Jared T’s superb review of Millions Shall Know (Part one, Part two, Part three, and Part four) does, however, acknowledge that Mr. Tracy provides “convincing evidence” that the skulls were misidentified.

    Comment by Ardis E. Parshall — September 6, 2013 @ 12:05 am

  28. … on the other hand, Curtis G. Weber’s Skulls and Crossed Bones? notes serious flaws in Tracy’s evidence for misidentification, and presents a strong case for accuracy of the 1928 identifications.

    Comment by Ardis E. Parshall — September 6, 2013 @ 8:50 am

  29. While visiting Nauvoo many years ago, we heard the guide tell us something that gets lost most of the time.
    At the time Joseph and Hyrum were killed, there was a “bounty” on their heads. So that means, if you could produce them dead or alive you could collect the reward.Emma was very concerned that someone would dig up the bodies to collect the bounty, if they knew the site of the graves. According to our guide, this is the reason the bodies were originally moved.
    Many people criticized Emma for not coming out west. I felt a very strong impression as I stood there, that Emma stayed to protect Joseph in death as she had in life.
    I think criticizing anyone for decisions made then or later when the bodies were moved is pointless. We were not there and perhaps faced with the circumstances they faced, we would have concurred with the decisions.
    Joseph and Hyrum have a resting place and “resting”, for those bodies, is their reward.

    Comment by Pam Wootton — September 27, 2013 @ 12:17 pm

  30. This is the kind of report- that makes life for a blogger more difficult than it needs to be. Letting this comment out of moderation will no doubt result in planting a false idea in some reader’s mind, no matter what I say about it. Just as the tour guide’s words from “many years ago” have stuck in memory, this comment will outlast someone’s memory of my contradiction.

    Tour guides are notorious for — how can I say it courteously? — making stuff up, and repeating uncritically the stuff that other people make up. Or, misunderstanding, exaggerating, and distorting facts beyond all recognition. Tour guides go off script all the time, and they do a great disservice to the people who hear, believe, and repeat the stuff they make up.

    There was no bounty on Joseph and Hyrum. They were in custody at the time they were murdered; they were not fugitives. Even had there been a bounty in effect at some prior time, it would have become void when Joseph and Hyrum submitted to legal authority and were taken into custody.

    It is possible that the tour guide accepted the claim of William Daniels, who published a weird booklet with some fantastic — as in “fantasy” — details purported to have occurred at the martyrdom, including the false notion that someone tried to cut off Joseph’s head to claim a non-existent bounty. The tour guide may have been garbling into the martyrdom story the belief that the governor of Missouri offered a reward (falsely called a bounty, since it would have been extrajudicial) in 1843 for the kidnapping of Joseph back to Missouri.

    In any case, there was no bounty in effect at the time of the martyrdom. Emma may have feared that graverobbers would dig up the bodies to disfigure and dishonor them, but there was no legal authority to submit the bodies to in hopes of any reward.

    Comment by Ardis E. Parshall — September 27, 2013 @ 12:56 pm

  31. Thanks, Ardis, for answering the “bounty” question.

    Comment by Jeffery Johnson — September 29, 2013 @ 10:38 pm